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Chlamydia: Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, and Prevention

 Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. Chlamydia is considered a "silent disease" in both men and women because up to 50-70% of patients have no typical symptoms. The disease can lead to many serious complications, even infertility if not treated and prevented in time.

The article was expertly consulted by Doctors

Chlamydia: Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, and Prevention
Chlamydia: Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, and Prevention


Chlamydia: Causes, symptoms, treatment, and prevention



What is Chlamydia?

Chlamydia is a common sexually transmitted infection. Anyone who has unprotected sex is at risk. The disease tends to increase worldwide. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), an estimated 90 million cases of Chlamydia infection are detected each year. The prevalence of this bacterium in adults in the South Pacific is 73%, Papua New Guinea 20%, Japan 7.0%, Senegal 7.0%, and Vietnam 2.3%.


In Vietnam, a study in Hanoi in 2003 showed that the rate of Chlamydia infection: newbies 9%, pregnant women 1.5%, STD checkers (sexually transmitted diseases) 1.5%, prostitutes 5.0%. Another study in 15 border provinces on female sex workers showed that: 11.9% were infected with Chlamydia, of which Kien Giang had the highest rate of 17.3%, Lai Chau 16.2%, and An Giang the lowest. ,3%.


What causes Chlamydia?

Chlamydia is caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. It is an intracellular bacterium due to its inability to synthesize high-energy compounds (ATP and GTP). It differs from all other bacteria in having an unusual multiplication cycle. Cycles follow each other with two very specific patterns in response to intracellular and extracellular life. Chlamydia's multiplication cycle is about 48-72 hours, after this time the bacteria will destroy cells and cause mucosal damage. Chlamydia has three biological variants that differ in clinical and biological manifestations:


Chlamydia Psittaci: This variant is commonly found in birds, and it often infects people with parrot fever.

Chlamydia Pneumoniae: The main cause of respiratory diseases, the disease can be transmitted from person to person.

Chlamydia Trachomatis: This is the main variant that causes sexually transmitted infections, and is also the cause of pink eye symptoms.

Chlamydia is a special bacterium that is obligate parasitic in living cells, spherical, intermediate in size between bacteria and viruses due to its genetic system, so it can be classified as viruses, can also be classified into groups bacteria. Chlamydia trachomatis is contained in secretions from the vagina, urethra, and cervix. It is found in nature, inhabiting only human cells.


Chlamydia: Causes, symptoms, treatment, and prevention


Chlamydia trachomatis is the cause of Chlamydia


How is Chlamydia spread?

Chlamydia bacteria have very fast growth and reproduction rate. The direct route of transmission is mainly through unsafe sex such as vaginal, anal, and oral. The more sexual partners, the higher the risk of infection. Besides, Chlamydia can also be transmitted from mother to child through the placenta.

In addition, Chlamydia bacteria can also be transmitted by indirect ways such as:


Exists in personal items such as towels, dirty underwear, dirty tissues, etc. If using these items for a long time in the private area, the sick person can become infected.

From the water source: the route of disease transmission is less likely. Usually, these roads often have a higher rate of occurrence in polluted living areas, with poor sanitary conditions.

Factors that increase the risk of contracting Chlamydia

Anyone who is sexually active can be infected with Chlamydia. However, there are still some people who are at high risk of getting the disease, such as:


People who have sex without using a condom.

The more sexual partners, the higher the risk of infection.

Do not use condoms consistently when not in a monogamous relationship.

People with another sexually transmitted disease or HIV/AIDS.

Especially, women who are in the reproductive stage, if they have early sexual activities and do not actively protect the private area.

Men who engage in anal homosexual sex.

Signs and Symptoms of Chlamydia

Most people infected with Chlamydia have no symptoms at first. On average, each year about 7 million people are infected without knowing they have been infected. Manifestations of the disease are often very "concealed", mild or indistinct, by the time the symptoms are clearly seen, the disease has progressed to the acute stage. In particular, the rate of female vaginitis caused by Chlamydia is about 25% - 50%, in men, early symptoms appear.



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